TOP1α, UPF1, and TTG2 regulate seed size in a parental dosage–dependent manner

by Chengxiang Li, Ximing Gong, Bin Zhang, Zhe Liang, Chui Eng Wong, Benjamin Yen How See, Hao Yu

Cues of maternal and paternal origins interact to control seed development, and the underlying molecular mechanisms are still far from clear. Here, we show that TOPOISOMERASE Iα (TOP1α), UP-FRAMESHIFT SUPPRESSOR 1 (UPF1), and TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA2 (TTG2) gametophytically, biparentally regulate seed size in Arabidopsis. TOP1α and UPF1 are mainly expressed in antipodal cells, and loss of their function leads to ectopic TTG2 expression in these female gametophytic cells. We further demonstrate that TOP1α and UPF1 directly repress TTG2 expression through affecting its chromatin status and determine its relative expression in antipodal cells versus sperm cells, which controls seed size in a dosage-dependent and parent-of-origin-dependent manner. The molecular interplay among these three genes explains their biparental gametophytic effect during diploidy and interploidy reciprocal crosses. Taken together, our findings reveal a molecular framework of parental interaction for seed size control.

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