by Lee-Ling Lim, Eric S. H. Lau, Risa Ozaki, Harriet Chung, Amy W. C. Fu, Wendy Chan, Alice P. S. Kong, Ronald C. W. Ma, Wing-Yee So, Elaine Chow, Kitty K. T. Cheung, Tiffany Yau, C. C. Chow, Vanessa Lau, Rebecca Yue, Shek Ng, Benny Zee, William Goggins, Brian Oldenburg, Philip M. Clarke, Maggie Lau, Rebecca Wong, C. C. Tsang, Edward W. Gregg, Hongjiang Wu, Peter C. Y. Tong, Gary T. C. Ko, Andrea O. Y. Luk, Juliana C. N. Chan
Diabetes outcomes are influenced by host factors, settings, and care processes. We examined the association of data-driven integrated care assisted by information and communications technology (ICT) with clinical outcomes in type 2 diabetes in public and private healthcare settings.
Methods and findings
The web-based Joint Asia Diabetes Evaluation (JADE) platform provides a protocol to guide data collection for issuing a personalized JADE report including risk categories (1–4, low–high), 5-year probabilities of cardiovascular-renal events, and trends and targets of 4 risk factors with tailored decision support. The JADE program is a prospective cohort study implemented in a naturalistic environment where patients underwent nurse-led structured evaluation (blood/urine/eye/feet) in public and private outpatient clinics and diabetes centers in Hong Kong. We retrospectively analyzed the data of 16,624 Han Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes who were enrolled in 2007–2015. In the public setting, the non-JADE group (n = 3,587) underwent structured evaluation for risk factors and complications only, while the JADE (n = 9,601) group received a JADE report with group empowerment by nurses. In a community-based, nurse-led, university-affiliated diabetes center (UDC), the JADE-Personalized (JADE-P) group (n = 3,436) received a JADE report, personalized empowerment, and annual telephone reminder for reevaluation and engagement. The primary composite outcome was time to the first occurrence of cardiovascular-renal diseases, all-site cancer, and/or death, based on hospitalization data censored on 30 June 2017. During 94,311 person-years of follow-up in 2007–2017, 7,779 primary events occurred. Compared with the JADE group (136.22 cases per 1,000 patient-years [95% CI 132.35–140.18]), the non-JADE group had higher (145.32 [95% CI 138.68–152.20]; P = 0.020) while the JADE-P group had lower event rates (70.94 [95% CI 67.12–74.91]; P Conclusions
ICT-assisted integrated care was associated with a reduction in clinical events, including death in type 2 diabetes in public and private healthcare settings.